Prayers Of Renunciation – Egyptian Gods
by Amanda Buys
Ephesians 6:10‐12 “10 Finally, my brethren, be strong in the LORD, and in the power of his might. 11 Put on the whole armour of GOD, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. 12 For we wrestle not against Glesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.”
In the beginning there was nothing but Nun – the raging waters of chaos. Ra emerged out of Nun. He then sailed through the sky in a boat and created the earth, air and water, as well as all plants, living creatures and the other gods. He was the god of all creation and the most powerful god in the universe. In Lower Egypt, the sun god was called Ra. In Upper Egypt, the sun god was known as Amon. This god was thus collectively known as Amon-Ra. Amon-Ra ceated day and night, by circling the world in his sky-boat. He was born as a baby every morning and died an old man at night. He was synonym with light and life. He is represented as a man (sometimes with the head of a falcon), with or without horns, but always with a sun disk. Amon-Ra created Shu, and his twin sister Tefnut. Shu and Tefnut married and had two children – Geb and Nut. Geb and Nut married and had four children (two pairs of pigeon twins) – Osiris and Isis, Set and Nephthys. Osiris and Isis ruled over the fertile Lower Egypt whilst Set and Nephthys ruled the barren Upper Egypt. This caused Set to be jealous and turn to evil. Nut also had another daughter Hathor with her grandfather, Amon-Ra. Osiris married her twin brother Isis, and had Horus.
Nephthys married her twin brother Set. They could not have children so Nephthys tricked her brother Osiris and bore his child, Anubis.
➡ 2.1.1 Five basic creation stories.
- The Ennead of Heliopolis
- The Ogdoad of Hermopolis
- The Triad of Elephantine (Abu)
- The Triad of Thebes
- The Triad of Memphis
➡ 2.1.2 The Ennead of Heliopolis.
Heliopolis is found just to the northeast of modern Cairo. It was politically and spiritually powerful during the Old Kingdom. It is the site of the first known sun temple, which was dedicated to Re-Hekarte. Today, only a single relic remains standing at the site. The obelisk of Senwosret 1 now marks the location. According to the Heliopolitans, the first act of creation occurred when the sun god Atum, “lord of Heliopolis”, rose out of the chaos of Nun from a lotus flower and stood on a raised mound he created, the ben-ben. This first act of creation brought light into the world. At the site of his emergence, the temple of Heliopolis was built. Atum was called a self-created god or the child of Nun. He was also said to be the ben-ben. At the time of the Pyramid Texts, Atum became identified with Re. As Atum-Re, he was connected to the Bennu Bird (the phoenix). Atum created his children, Shu and Tefnut by masturbating. This may seem impossible but Atum was a bisexual god. He embodied both the male and female aspects of life. Therefore, his semen contained all that was necessary to create new life and deities. The Egyptians called Atum “Great He-She” and his name meant “the complete one”. Shu and Tefnut in turn conceived Geb and Nut through normal sexual relations. Geb was the god of the earth and Nut was the sky. After conceiving four children (Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and Seth), Geb and Nut became separated by their father Shu, the god of the air. Nut is often shown arched over Geb with the sun traveling along her body. Beyond Nut’s body lies Nun and nonexistence.