Soon we’ll have a mind-reading chip connected to our brains:
Genetic algorithms are used to evolve neural (and sometimes body) properties in a model brain-body-environment system so as to exhibit some desired behavioral performance.
The evolved agents can then be subjected to a detailed analysis to uncover their principles of operation.
Evolutionary approaches are particularly useful for exploring spaces of possible solutions to a given behavioral task because these approaches minimize a priori assumptions about how a given behavior ought to be instantiated.
They can also be useful for exploring different ways to complete a computational neuroethology model when only partial neural circuitry is available for a biological system of interest.
MATLAB is a programming environment that is used globally in virtually all neuroscience and cognitive psychology laboratories . MATLAB integrates the modelling and experimental processes by bringing together, under the aegis of an intuitive scripting language, powerful data analysis and mathematical modelling tools.
NEURON, developed at Duke University, is a simulation environment for modeling individual neurons and networks of neurons . With the NEURON interface, it is possible to generate publication-quality results without having to write any program code at all. The NEURON simulation engine is based on a Hodgkin–Huxley type model with a Borg–Graham formulation.
Embodiment in electronic hardware
Conductance-based silicon neurons
Nervous systems differ from the majority of silicon-based computing devices in that they resemble analog computers (not digital data processors) and massively parallel processors, not sequential processors. To model nervous systems accurately, in real-time, alternative hardware is required.
The most realistic circuits to date make use of analog properties of existing digital electronics (operated under non-standard conditions) to realize Hodgkin–Huxley-type models in silico.
With the development of large-scale neural recording and decoding technologies https://drive.google.com/…/0B4iZUaEgNfFfZl9iU1BpbzNJTW8/view researchers have begun to crack the neural code and already provided the first glimpse into the real-time neural code as memory is formed and recalled in the hippocampus, a brain region known to be central for memory formation.
Neuroscientists have initiated several large-scale brain decoding projects.
A sequence, or ‘train’, of spikes may contain information based on different coding schemes. In motor neurons, for example, the strength at which an innervated muscle is flexed depends solely on the ‘firing rate’, the average number of spikes per unit time (a ‘rate code’). At the other end, a complex ‘temporal code’ is based on the precise timing of single spikes. They may be locked to an external stimulus such as in the visual and auditory system or be generated intrinsically by the neural circuitry.
Whether neurons use rate coding or temporal coding is a topic of intense debate within the neuroscience community, even though there is no clear definition of what these terms mean. In one theory, termed “neuroelectrodynamics”, the following coding schemes are all considered to be epiphenomena, replaced instead by molecular changes reflecting the spatial distribution of electric fields within neurons as a result of the broad electromagnetic spectrum of action potentials, and manifested in information as spike directivity.
All Human’s are Computers in Ubiquitous Computing that needs to be monitored with ICT Technology by Artificial Intelligence:
With the Internet of Things, we’re building a world-size robot.
How are we going to control it?